Holistic climate protection strategy

Holistic climate protection strategy
Produktcode: AD2427
Preis ohne MWSt.: 0,01 €
Preis inkl. MWSt.: 0,01 €

Holistic climate protection strategy through interventions in the water cycle, evaporation and clouds & protection against drought and floods incl. 

 
 

holistic climate protection - now !


Holistic, alternative climate protection strategy

Concept for lowering the rise in sea level and the earth temperature through regional protection against drought and flood disasters ... protects regions, Germany and the whole world. 

- We turn the rising sea level into evaporative cooling, clouds and rain, - because water has become scarce worldwide and our blue planet is just losing the cloud & ice albedo - reflection, wisdom and speed are required.

With the model of an alternative, holistic climate protection strategy, we want to show that some of the most serious problems of climate change such as: 

1. - Rapidly expanding deserts with forest and species extinction 

2. - accelerated, rising sea levels and earth temperature 

3. - groundwater levels falling in many places, drainage of the regions and continents

4. - Drought periods with temperature records and heavy rain events 

are all associated with the presence or absence of water!           

- We intervene with an ! additional ! alternative climate protection strategy in the levels of the rivers and oceans through water retention over the land areas. 

- We cool the earth's temperature surprisingly easily with the help of an intensification of the earth's water cycles, evaporation and clouds. 

CO² <--- out ! ... and H²O ---> in ! - to the atmosphere - is our supplementary strategy recommendation to the IPCC and for regions and cities around the world.

- In principle a simple, worldwide request to politics, agriculture, industry but also to private persons to build up extensive water reserves wherever possible in order to use them generously in plant growth, evaporation, clouds and "water cooling" during periods of drought in spring and summer. "                                                                                                                             

                                                               THEORY:

As an explanatory introduction to this alternative, holistic climate protection, the question arises:

 

How do we bring falling groundwater levels in many places, the worldwide phenomenon of water shortage and rising sea levels together? - What specific measures and changes will protect us from drought, flood events and further increases in earth temperatures in the future?

Many people in charge in science and politics usually answer this question to ...                      

- that only the rapid reduction in emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2 alone can stop the climate catastrophe and other tipping elements and ... 

- that humans can not influence the climate by a different strategy. 

A majority of climate scientists are also convinced:

- The rise in sea level is unstoppable and also irreversible, ...

- That humans cannot directly influence the climate, solar radiation, rain, clouds and the water vapor content of the atmosphere ...

We are countering this with our alternative climate protection strategy - and claim: 

 

- "Rising CO² concentrations are undisputedly the No. 1 cause and trigger of climate change - but fewer global CO2 emissions (even a dreamed net zero by 2050) are not really a cooling, negative radiative forcing ... ... while our holistic climate protection strategy can quickly compensate for the current annual temperature increase of ~ 0.015 ° C or ~ 0.037W / m² with a small increase in global cloud albedo / cover of 0.185%. " 

- "Water vapor (and not CO2) is and has always been the most important & strongest greenhouse gas and, due to the resulting albedo of the clouds, has a strong cooling effect on the earth temperature (-19W / m²) and thus represents a powerful, negative, cooling radiative forcing. "

- "The lowering of the sea level rise & the earth temperature are directly related to the global radiation balance and the water cycles of the earth."

- "Not only the fastest possible lowering of CO² emissions, but also a globally changed handling of water and an improved water management should immediately be defined and implemented as climate protection."

- "That the rise in sea level, the rise in the earth's temperature, drought and flood events can be compensated and defused solely through a globally staged and practiced rain and water retention and a switch from groundwater use to the use of flowing waters."

- "And of course humans can influence the climate, sea level and the water vapor content of the atmosphere - otherwise the earth would not be in a man-made climate catastrophe that is already taking place."

                                                                                            ---

We have influenced climate every day for centuries, not only through constantly increasing CO² emissions, but also long before industrialization by  extensive and far-reaching interventions in the water balance of natural - as well as agricultural - and urban - land areas.                                        

Millions of km² of agricultural area, mostly (rain) forest eliminated by slash and burn, together with ~ 1.5 million km² of urban sealed area in the course of the centuries inevitably led to less and less water being evaporated over these areas and precipitation and service water quickly over the Drains and rivers into the sea. 

The long-term, global drainage of moors and wetlands and canalization of rivers also significantly reduces their ability to store and evaporate water. Globally expanding deserts are rapidly increasing these areas with reduced evaporation. Drought periods in summer, even up to near the Arctic Circle, now produce less and less evaporation and clouds over the land areas, especially when the highest solar radiation acts.

 

The flow of energy from the surface in height and width takes place less and less by means of water vapor, but increasingly in the form of hot and dry air. Moist rainforests transport clouds and rain inland - conversely, deserts spread blue skies and drought - as far as Brandenburg.

The extent of the originally CO2-induced surface warming depends, however, on how much and in what ratio it is offset by local cooling factors 

- namely latent cooling through evaporation of water (water cooling) 

- and cooling through the sensible exchange of dry heat between the land surface and above lying air (air cooling).

 

The atmospheric warming caused by stronger, sensible heat flow and unsaturated with water vapor also inhibits cloud formation and can thus lead to a further increase in temperature and drying of the land surface due to a cloudless sky. A highly dangerous feedback effect which, compared to the ice-albedo effect, could be many times more fast-acting and thus stronger.

 

In order to clarify how both heat flows interact, we ask, what does 82W / m²  global evapotranspiration mean in a desert without water?

 

Without any water, the irradiating solar energy will only be transformed into an increase in the temperature of the ground, air and air movement (convection / wind). Stronger updrafts with less and less water vapor in their luggage can also explain an average increase in the height of the clouds over the last few decades. 

Therefore, the sensible heat flows, the latent evapotranspiration energy and reflective cloud albedo in the different radiation balances of           all_sky // clear_sky & land // ocean are particularly important factors for our climate protection concept. 

A large part of the evaporation energy specified in the averaged global radiation balance (all_sky) with ~ 82W / m² is converted into water vapor over the area of ​​71% oceans and the volume of evaporation there increases with increasing air and water temperatures approximately according to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation But over the 29% land area, the (non-) existing soil moisture or the presence or absence of water relativizes what is happening in many places. .


       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wild, M., Hakuba, M.Z., Folini, D. et al. The cloud-free global energy balance and inferred cloud radiative effects: an assessment based on direct observations and climate models. Clim Dyn 52, 4787-4812 (2019).

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-018-4413-y

 
The target of our alternative strategy is to use the strong cooling effect of clouds (-19W / m²) - and to produce evaporation and clouds from the retained runoff by rivers with the volume of the rise in sea level (3.7mm = 1335km³). 

A volume that corresponds to 9L / m² land area = ~ 1 -1.5% of the annual rainfall over land, and thus leads to a correspondingly higher cloud cover over the land areas in spring and summer. 
Multiplication effects, which can arise from the fact that these clouds with a relatively high probability will again precipitate over a land area and form further clouds - are not (yet) taken into account.  
 
We therefore estimate the cooling radiative forcing resulting from additional evaporation through an improving cloud cover / albedo over land areas to be approx. -0.19 - 0.28W / m² per year. This cooling radiative forcing would be suitable to compensate the current, global and annual radiative forcing of approx. +0.04 - 0.05W / m² with ease and to reduce future heat records. 
 
In theory, this would stop the rise in earth temperature ! 
 
The additional annual evaporation (+ 0.7W / m² = 9L / m²) also improves the energy transport from the land surface to the atmosphere by an average of 6.12 KWh / m². The use of additional "artificial irrigation" and retention measures with an annual, global total volume of 1335km³ = (3.7mm SLR) can reduce the predominantly CO²-related global warming over land with ~ -0.15W / m² "global water cooling" 
by approx  0.07 ° C / year. 
 
If you take this additional volume from flowing waters and / or bank filtrate instead of using groundwater ...
 
                                              ... the rise in sea level has thus also stopped ! 
 
The planned and required global measures and changes in water management are then always an excellent regional protection against periods of drought, but at the same time also against heavy rain and flooding. 
 
Assuming that this water volume (1335km³) is completely withdrawn from global runoff and fed to transpiration through plants or groundwater reservoirs and soil moisture, there is a potential for additional CO² absorption of ~ 4.9 - 9.8Gt / year (C3 -C4 plants bind 1-2kg carbon / m³ water).
 
Overall, it can be assumed that biodiversity will more likely benefit from additional amounts of water over land and counteract the extinction of species.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
 

Best estimates for the magnitude of the annual mean energy balance components averaged over land (upper panel) and oceans (lower panel), together with their uncertainty ranges, representing climatic conditions at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The surface thermal upward flux contains both the surface thermal emission and a small contribution from the reflected part of the downward thermal radiation. Units Wm−2

Wild, M., Folini, D., Hakuba, M.Z. et al. The energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models. Clim Dyn 44, 3393-3429 (2015).

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-014-2430-z

Any precipitation that falls on the land area can be divided into:

Precipitation = evaporation + soil moisture, groundwater + runoff into rivers and the seas

The oceans of this world get their supply through the runoff of global river discharge (total 49500km³ / incl. Greenland, Antarctica).

& the precipitation over the seas. 

The only factors that could cause runoff and sinking sea levels would be higher evaporation over the oceans, 

or a correspondingly reduced discharge of the rivers with the volume of the annual sea level rise (1335km³), 

on which our alternative, holistic climate protection strategy is based.

This concept of "global water cooling" becomes complete when this amount of water retained in front of the rivers is converted into globally cooling evaporation and clouds, predominantly in summer.

 


                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                            THE PRACTICE
 
Distributed as a constant flow over the global land area to be rewetted, the sea level rise of 1335km³ annually loses its horror and volume to only 0.28L / km² and second. That corresponds to an ! additional ! annual water volume of 9L / m² (= ~ 1 - 1.5% of the annual rainfall) and the corresponding quantity "evaporation" in the global energy balance over land areas increases by ~ 0.7W / m², since 1kg of water is used for evaporation ~ 0.68KWh required as amount of energy. (9L = 6.12KWh / 365/24 = 0.7W / m²)
 

Global agriculture, as the largest consumer of water, currently uses around 50 million km² (one third of the global land area) per year around 2900 km³ of water for irrigation. On only ~ 45% of these agricultural areas, the water management would have to be changed from groundwater use to flowing waters and / or river filtrate in order to stop the rise in sea levels and to replenish soil moisture and groundwater reserves.

In addition to other possible savings, reprocessing and / or the above-mentioned changes in water consumption in industry ... ... also global precipitation (800-850mm) over the urban areas (= ~ 1% of the land area / ~ 1.5 million km² ) on average approx. the volume of the annual sea level rise (2018) of ~ 3.7mm = 1335km³ = 9mm over the global land area. On the global scale, rain barrels, cisterns or rain retention basins with an overflow onto unsealed terrain alone have a potential of approx. 1-2mm sea level rise.

The ingenious water management of a pre-Inca culture, which already 1500 years ago in one of the driest deserts in the world (Atacama), with "Amunas" without any electr. pumps or other modern aids have wrested water from the land - it is essential to mention here as an example:

https://hidraulicainca.com/

Further, possible extraction quantities outside the drought periods from running waters (total ~ 49500km³) for rewetting of moors, wetlands and forests with an even greater total potential are shown in the following graph (white dashed) as an example for Austria and the Danube. 

                                      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What alternative, holistic climate protection can look like in the region is shown in the Karlsruhe-South region. On the map you can see a 3.2 km long aqueduct between Lake Ferma and Lake Epple. The diameter of the line is approx. 50-80cm and should be able to transport up to 1000L / sec at peak loads. It connects 2 quarry ponds whose water quality with "good bathing quality" is measured as being relatively high. A discharge of Rhine water, which is set up for the rural / urban district of Karlsruhe with the following parameters: 

  1. - Area administrative district = ~ 1250km²,  
  2. - Inhabitants = ~ 750,000, 
  3. - agricultural. Area = ~ 500km²,                                     
  4. - forest and green areas = ~ 700km²,                                  
  5. - Built-up, urban sealed area = ~ 50km² 
  6. - Average discharge volume / year = 13.35 million m³ = 423L/sec         
  7.  
  8. = an additional 27L / m² for Karlsruhe agriculture in a summer drought. 
  9.  
  10. With this diversion, the urban and rural district of Karlsruhe fulfills three times the globally required average of 9L / m² to compensate for the rise in sea level. The investment costs of the described Rhine water retention measure are estimated at € 3.5 - 7.5 million and upscaled to € 125 million. km² of land area with 7.5 billion inhabitants, this means total global costs of an estimated € 400-750 billion and € 10 to € 100 per person on earth for an infrastructure that is estimated and built up over decades and that is able to cope with every m³ of water that is retained can be sold, financed.

The 12.5 km² roof areas in the same region have a similarly high retention potential of ~ 10.6 million m³    

with ~ 850mm annual rainfall, if they are equipped with rain barrels & overflow on unsealed terrain.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On average, around 49500 km³ of river water flows into the oceans every year. 

If mankind were to withhold or remove ~ 2.7% of this river water on a global average over the year in all catchment areas of the rivers around the world in order to stabilize the groundwater level and aquifers, the rise in sea levels would be stopped solely by the lower runoff of the rivers

This extraction ideally takes place as high as possible "up" near the smaller tributaries, where the water is still clean and a diversion through usable meters in altitude does not require any use of energy or can even be used for small hydropower.

Then mankind would have enough water reserves in many places to generously bridge the summer droughts with artificial irrigation. The additional evaporation of water over land areas such as agriculture, moors and possibly forests, etc. will increase the probability of precipitation and cloud formation, especially in summer, and the resulting improvement in the albedo will now have a cooling effect on earth temperatures. Evaporation and clouds generated over land areas are more likely (than over the oceans) to hit a land area as precipitation and thus create a certain multiplication effect.

The most important positive effects of the alternative climate protection strategy are:

- stabilized sea level

- less flood damage

- better resilience to drought or lowering of low water levels

- thicker potatoes and farmer. Income

- lower water prices

- an additional cooling capacity of 680KWh for the ground and the surrounding air in summer for every m³ of water removed

- higher cloud formation especially in summer and thus a higher albedo over the global land areas with a cooling effect on the average global temperature of the earth

- Maintaining or improving the CO² assimilation of terrestrial plants (1-2Kg carbon bond / m³ transpired H²O) = 4.9 - 9.8Gt CO² per year

- less wind erosion, species loss ... and much more

Artificial irrigation and an increase in the cloud albedo is a climate protection concept that is independent of CO² emissions, which unfortunately is easily lost in the general hustle and bustle of the climate gas CO² at the international climate summits, remains undervalued and, unfortunately, is calculated, discussed and implemented far too seldom.

 

Further climate science, texts and graphics to explain:

- Global development of evaporation, precipitation, groundwater levels and global runoff

- Evidence and causes of a globally decreasing cloud cover

- A better understanding of our holistic climate protection strategy ...

can be found here as a PDF:

english-website cph.pdf (1 MB)

 
 

© copyright: matthias schuerle / lumen-laden
© 26.09.2021 Alternative climate protection | All rights reserved.     


 

Kontakt

www.lumen-laden.de

matthias schürle
gartenstr. 70
Karlsruhe
76135


Festnetz+49 (0)721 82101196



Ust-IdNr. : DE289938526
WEEE-Reg.-Nr. DE 91006499
MARKE: lumen-laden
Übersetzung --> original Seite

Produkte im Sonderangebot

Diese Rubrik enthält keine Artikel.